Senin, 29 Agustus 2011

Glaukoma 11 - Glaucoma - 青光眼

Glaukoma 11 - Glaucoma - 青光眼



Germanium

I sometimes am reminded of the blind patients that often came to my office. There were diseases of the retinal blood vessels, such as glaucoma, black cataracts, detached retinas, inflammation of the retina and optic nerves, and without exaggeration, I can say that it was amazing how effective germanium had been. 1 often witnessed scenes where patients wept as they cried out, "Now I can see ." Those who could not see would invariably say, ''If 1 could only see again, Doctor, I would give anything. If it were money I would even go into debt to pay for it. I cannot understand the psychology of people who know the joy of seeing, and yet do evil things and are greedy. There can be no greater happiness in the world than being able to see. . .: During the International Angiological Congress, I met a professor of ophthalmology at the State Medical College of Rio de Janeiro. He wrote that using the germanium compound on a patient virtually blind with amaurosis yielded amazingly good results, and that the patient was well on the road to recovery. It had already been verified that germanium rejuvenates retinal vessels, and is therefore effective in treating glaucoma and amaurosis. His letter has added new evidence of its efficacy.
http://www.regenerativenutrition.com/content.asp?id=440

Allium sativum
Angelica archangelica
Camellia sinensis
Ganoderma lucidum
Panax Ginseng
Panax quinquefolius
Zingiber officinale


Chromium

Aside from making sure that your reading prescription is up-to-date, one of the best ways to lower pressure inside the eyeballs is with a mineral called chromium, says Dr. Lane.
In a study done at Columbia University, Dr. Lane asked more than 400 people with eye disease to detail the foods they had eaten during the previous two months. Then they took tests to measure the vitamin and mineral content of their blood. Among the findings: Those people who didn’t get enough chromium and who ate too many vanadium-containing foods were at higher risk for glaucoma. (Vanadium is another common mineral that occurs naturally in many foods, including kelp, dulse and other seaweed as well as large marine fish.)
“What set of muscles do we use more today than ever before in recorded history? The focusing muscles in our eyes,” says Dr. Lane. “And what nutrient helps facilitate the ability of our eye muscles to focus? The bottom line is that most of us need more chromium, especially if we have been eating refined and sugar-supplemented foods.Adequate chromium levels are necessary to help deliver needed energy to your eye-focusing muscles, he says.
And what’s the connection between eye muscles and glaucoma? When you perform tasks that require prolonged intense focus, such as reading, too much fluid can be produced inside the eyeballs, Dr. Lane explains. In some people, he says, the fluid doesn’t drain properly and pressure builds, contributing to glaucoma.
People who suffer from Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes seem more likely to develop glaucoma, says Dr. Lane. And that’s not surprising, he says, because both people with diabetes and those with glaucoma have been found to be low in chromium.
The best sources of chromium include egg yolks, brewer’s yeast and most unrefined foods rich in energy content. Consequently, ripe fresh sweet and starchy fruits and vegetables also contain more than adequate chromium, says Dr. Lane.
The Daily Value for chromium is 120 micrograms.

Achillea millefolium
Actinidia chinensis
Agathosma betulina
Agropyron repens
Allium cepa
Allium sativum
Aloe
aloe vera
Althaea officinalis
Anacardium occidentale
Anethum graveolens
Angelica sinensis
Apium graveolens
Arachis hypogaea
Arctium lappa
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Armoracia lapathifolia
Artemisia vulgaris
Asparagus officinalis
Astragalus membranaceus
Avena sativa
Berberis vulgaris
Bertholletia excelsa
Betonica officinalis
Boehmeria nivea
Brassica campestris
Bupleurum chinense
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum frutescens
Carica papaya
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya ovata
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Centella asiatica
Chamaemelum nobile
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Chondrus crispus
Chrysanthemum parthenium
Cichorium endivia
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Citrus x paradisi
Cnicus benedictus
Cocos nucifera
Coriandrum sativum
Corylus avellana
Crataegus laevigata
Cucumis sativus
Cucurbita pepo
Cuminum cyminum
Curcuma longa
Cymbopogon citratus
Cypripedium calceolus pubescens
Daucus carota
Dioscorea
Dioscorea villosa
Diospyros virginiana
Echinacea purpurea
Elettaria cardamomum
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Ephedra sinica
Equisetum arvense
Eriodictyon californicum
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Euphrasia officinalis
Fallopia japonica
Foeniculum vulgare
Fucus vesiculosus
Galega officinalis
Gentiana lutea
Ginkgo
Glechoma hederacea
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Gymnema sylvestre
Harpagophytum procumbens
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Hordeum vulgare
Humulus lupulus
Hydrangea arborescens
Hydrastis canadensis
Inula helenium
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra
Juniperus communis
Juniperus virginiana
Lactuca sativa
Larrea tridentata
Linum usitatissimum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Lobelia inflata
Lycopersicon esculentum
Malus domestica
Medicago sativa
Mentha piperita
Mentha pulegium
Musa X paradisiaca
Myrica cerifera
Myristica fragrans
Nepeta cataria
Nyssa sylvatica
Panax ginseng
Papaver somniferum
Parthenium integrifolium
Passiflora incarnata
Pastinaca sativa
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Pimenta dioica
Pinus echinata
Piper nigrum
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Plantago major
Plantago psyllium
Polygonum multiflorum
Prunus amygdalus
Prunus domestica
Prunus persica
Prunus serotina
Ptychopetalum olacoides
Pyrus communis
Quercus alba
Quercus discolor
Quercus phellos
Quercus rubra
Quercus stellata
Raphanus sativus
Rhamnus purshiana
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhus copallina
Rhus glabra
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa canina
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rumex crispus
Ruscus aculeatus
Sabal serratula
Salix alba
Salvia Officinalis
Sassafras albidum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Senna alexandrina
Sesamum indicum
Silybum marianum
Sinapis alba
Smilax
Solanum melongena
Solanum tuberosum
Sorbus aucuparia
Spinacia oleracea
Stellaria media
Stevia rebaudiana
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Symphytum officinale
Syzygium aromaticum
Tabebuia heptaphylla
Taraxacum officinale
Thymus vulgaris
Trachyspermum ammi
Trifolium pratense
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Turnera diffusa
Ulmus fulva
Urtica dioeca
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis idaea
Valeriana officinalis
Verbascum thapsus
Viburnum opulus
Viscum album
Vitis Vinifera
Yucca baccata
Zea mays
Zingiber officinale


Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

LA memiliki 2 isomer yaitu R-enantiomer dan S-enantiomer. R-LA (bahasa Inggris: [(R)-5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid) dapat ditemukan pada banyak makanan yang mengandung sejenis protein yang disebut lisina. Ikatan kovalen yang dibentuk antara kedua senyawa tersebut menghasilkan senyawa yang disebut lipolisina, yang banyak ditemukan pada bahan nabati seperti
horenso (Spinacia oleracea)
brokoli
tomat
garden peas (Pisum sativum)
brussel sprouts (Brassica oleracea)
rice bran (bekatul)
khamir (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
dan bahan hewani seperti
jantung
hati
ginjal


Magnesium

Magnesium has long been recognized as nature's physiological calcium blocker. Previous studies had demonstrated that calcium channel-blocking drugs offer benefits for some glaucoma patients. Armed with this revelation, researchers at the University Eye Clinic in Basel, Switzerland, evaluated the effect of supplemental magnesium on glaucoma patients. Magnesium (121.5 mg twice daily) was administered to 10 glaucoma patients for 1 month. At the conclusion of the study, results substantiated that magnesium supplementation improved the peripheral circulation, with an accompanying beneficial effect on the visual field in patients with glaucoma.
Magnesium also has the ability to turn off the sympathetic nervous system. This is a reputation that has earned magnesium credit in cardiology, acting as an antiadrenergic. An antiadrenergic drug blocks the effects of impulses transmitted by the adrenergic postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. This act would tone and modify the sympathetic response, soothing the "fight or flight" syndrome. Recall that among the many functions controlled by the sympathetic nervous system--those normally not under conscious control--are dilation of the pupils and a general stimulatory response. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system would be contraindicated in glaucoma control.
Minerals are absolutely essential to longevity and quality of life. Individuals can survive longer with a vitamin deficiency than with a mineral deficiency. The importance of minerals is becoming more evident as research data amass. The trace mineral chromium has won additional credit beyond stabilization of blood glucose levels by being able to improve focusing of the eye and lower IOP. Selenium benefits ocular function, and zinc supports healthy eye structure. Selection of a good multiple will provide these vital minerals, plus additional nutrients needed for ocular health. 

Abelmoschus esculentus
Abelmoschus manihot
Acacia catechu
Acacia nilotica
Acacia senegal
Achillea millefolium
Achyranthes bidentata
Aconitum carmichaelii
Acorus calamus
Actinidia chinensis
Aframomum melegueta
Agaricus bisporus
Agathosma betulina
Agropyron repens
Akebia quinata
Albizia julibrissin
Alisma plantago-aquatica
Allium cepa
Allium sativum
Allium schoenoprasum
Alocasia macrorrhiza
Aloe
aloe vera
Althaea officinalis
Amaranthus
Anacardium occidentale
Ananas comosus
Anemarrhena asphodeloides
Anethum graveolens
Angelica dahurica
Angelica laxiflora
Angelica sinensis
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona squamosa
Anthriscus cerefolium
Apium graveolens
Arachis hypogaea
Aralia papyrifera
Arctium lappa
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Areca catechu
Arisaema consanguineum
Aristolochia debilis
Armoracia lapathifolia
Artemisia capillaris
Artemisia dracunculus
Artemisia vulgaris
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Asarum sieboldii
Asimina triloba
Aspalathus linearis
Asparagus officinalis
Astragalus membranaceus
Atractylodes lancea
Atractylodes ovata
Avena sativa
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta indica
Belamcanda chinensis
Benincasa hispida
Berberis vulgaris
Bertholletia excelsa
Beta vulgaris
Betonica officinalis
Bletilla striata
Borago officinalis
Brassica juncea
Brassica nigra
Brassica oleracea capitata
Brassica oleracea var. Gongylodes
Broussonetia papyrifera
Bupleurum chinense
Camellia sinensis
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum frutescens
Carica papaya
Carthamus tinctorius
Carum carvi
Carya ovata
Cassia tora
Castanea dentata
Castanea sativa
Catalpa ovata
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Celosia argentea var. Cristata
Centaurium erythraea
Centella asiatica
Cerasus avium
Cerasus vulgaris
Chaenomeles speciosa
Chamaemelum nobile
Chamissoa altissima
Chenopodium album
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Chondrus crispus
Chrysanthemum coronarium
Chrysanthemum parthenium
Cicer arietinum
Cichorium endivia
Cichorium intybus
Cimicifuga racemosa
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Citrullus lanatus
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus limon
Citrus medica
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Citrus x aurantium
Citrus x paradisi
Cnicus benedictus
Cnidium officinale
Cocos nucifera
Coix lachryma-jobi
Colocasia esculenta
Commiphora mukul
Coptis chinensis
Coptis japonica
Corchorus olitorius
Coriandrum sativum
Cornus officinalis
Corylus avellana
Costus spicatus
Crataegus cuneata
Crataegus laevigata
Cucumis sativus
Cucurbita
Cucurbita maxima
Cucurbita pepo
Curcuma longa
Cymbopogon citratus
Cynanchum atratum
Cynara scolymus
Cyperus rotundus
Cypripedium calceolus pubescens
Daucus carota
Dioscorea
Dioscorea bulbifera
Dioscorea pentaphylla
Dioscorea villosa
Diospyros virginiana
Echinacea purpurea
Eleutherococcus senticosus
Ephedra
Ephedra sinica
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum hiemale
Eriobotrya japonica
Eriodictyon californicum
Eucommia ulmoides
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Euphrasia officinalis
Ficus carica
Firmiana simplex
Foeniculum vulgare
Forsythia suspensa
Fritillaria thunbergii
Fucus vesiculosus
Fusanus persicarius
Gastrodia elata
Genipa americana
Gentiana lutea
Gentiana scabra
Ginkgo
Glycine max
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Gymnema sylvestre
Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Harpagophytum procumbens
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus tuberosus
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Hordeum vulgare
Houttuynia cordata
Humulus lupulus
Hydrangea arborescens
Hydrastis canadensis
Hyoscyamus niger
Hyperanthera Moringa
Inula helenium
Ipomoea aquatica
Ipomoea Batatas
Isatis tinctoria
Juglans cinerea
Juglans nigra
Juglans regia
Juncus effusus
Juniperus communis
Juniperus virginiana
Lablab purpureus
Lactuca sativa
Lagenaria siceraria
Lantana camara
Larrea tridentata
Lens culinaris
Lentinula edodes
Ligustrum japonicum
Ligustrum lucidum
Linum usitatissimum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Lobelia inflata
Lonicera japonica
Luffa aegyptiaca
Lupinus albus
Lycium chinense
Lycopersicon esculentum
Lycopodium clavatum
Magnolia denudata
Magnolia kobus
Magnolia officinalis
Majorana hortensis
Malpighia glabra
Malus domestica
Mangifera indica
Manihot esculenta
Medicago sativa
Mentha arvensis
Mentha arvensis piperascens
Mentha piperita
Mentha pulegium
Mentha spicata
Minyranthus heterophylla
Momordica charantia
Morinda citrifolia
Morus alba
Musa X paradisiaca
Myrica cerifera
Myristica fragrans
Nasturtium officinale
Nelumbo nucifera
Nepeta cataria
Nyssa sylvatica
Ocimum basilicum
Oenothera biennis
Ophiopogon japonicus
Opuntia ficus-indica
Origanum vulgare
Oryza sativa
Pachyrhizus erosus
Paeonia lactiflora
Paeonia suffruticosa
Panax ginseng
Panax japonicus
Panax quinquefolius
Panicum maximum
Papaver somniferum
Parthenium integrifolium
Passiflora incarnata
Pastinaca sativa
Perideridia gairdneri
Perilla frutescens
Persea americana
Petasites japonicus
Petroselinum crispum
Phaseolus coccineus
Phaseolus lunatus
Phellodendron amurense
Phyllanthus emblica
Physalis peruviana
Pimenta dioica
Pimpinella anisum
Pinellia ternata
Pinus echinata
Pinus edulis
Piper nigrum
Pistacia vera
Pisum sativum
Plantago asiatica
Plantago major
Plantago psyllium
Platycodon grandiflorus
Pleurotus ostreatus
Polygala tenuifolia
Polygonum multiflorum
Portulaca oleracea
Prunella vulgaris
Prunus amygdalus
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus domestica
Prunus persica
Prunus serotina
Psidium guajava
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Psoralea esculenta
Pueraria pseudohirsuta
Pulsatilla chinensis
Punica granatum
Pyrus communis
Quercus alba
Quercus discolor
Quercus phellos
Quercus rubra
Quercus stellata
Raphanus sativus
Rehmannia glutinosa
Rhamnus purshiana
Rheum palmatum
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhizophora mangle
Rhus copallina
Rhus glabra
Ribes nigrum
Ribes rubrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa canina
Rosa laevigata
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubia cordifolia
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rumex acetosa
Rumex crispus
Ruscus aculeatus
Sabal serratula
Salix alba
Salvia miltiorrhiza
Salvia Officinalis
Sambucus nigra
Sassafras albidum
Schisandra chinensis
Scutellaria baicalensis
Scutellaria lateriflora
Secale cereale
Sechium edule
Senna alexandrina
Senna occidentalis
Sesamum indicum
Silybum marianum
Sinapis alba
Smilax
Solanum melongena
Solanum tuberosum
Sophora subprostrata
Sorbus aucuparia
Spinacia oleracea
Spondias tuberosa
Stellaria media
Stevia rebaudiana
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Symphytum officinale
Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium jambos
Tabebuia heptaphylla
Tamarindus indica
Taraxacum mongolicum
Taraxacum officinale
Tephrosia purpurea
Tetradium ruticarpum
Thlaspi arvense
Thymus vulgaris
Tragopogon porrifolius
Trifolium pratense
Trigonella foenum-graecum
Triticum aestivum
Triticum spelta
Turnera diffusa
Tussilago farfara
Ulmus fulva
Urera baccifera
Urtica dioeca
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis idaea
Valeriana officinalis
Verbascum thapsus
Viburnum opulus
Vicia faba
Vigna radiata
Viscum album
Vitis Vinifera
Yucca baccata
Zea mays
Zingiber officinale
Ziziphus jujuba


Melatonin

Melatonin (bahasa Inggris: melatonin, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) adalah hormon neurotropik dengan gugus antioksidan indolamina, yang disintesis oleh kelenjar pineal yang terletak di dalam otak dari senyawa asam amino triptofan. Melalui pencerapnya, melatonin berperan dalam berbagai proses fisiologis seperti ritme biologis, regulasi tekanan darah, onkogenesis, retina, reproduksi, ovarium, sistem kekebalan dan diferensiasi osteoblas. Transduksi sinyal pada lintasan melatonin meningkatkan rasio enzim antioksidan seperti superoksida dismutase, peroksidase, glutathion dan meredam enzim prooksidan seperti nitrogen monoksida sintase dan liposigenase.
Melatonin has been reported in foodstuffs including
bananas and grapes
rice and cereals
herbs
olive oil
wine and beer
While no food has been found to elevate plasma melatonin levels in humans, when other animals consume melatonin-containing food, blood levels of melatonin do increase.


Flavonoids

Perhaps one of the best natural treatments for glaucoma is a daily dose of flavonoid complex supplements. These supplements have all five required flavonoids: flavones, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, and catechins. These have not only shown to be promising for the reversal of glaucoma, but are good for general health, too.

Flavone

Achillea millefolium
Aesculus hippocastanum
Ammi visnaga
Andira araroba
Anethum graveolens
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Arnica montana
Artemisia absinthium
Betula pendula
Borreria verticillata
Brassica oleracea
Calluna vulgaris
Chamomilla recutita
Chelidonium majus
Chimaphila umbellata
Chrysanthemum parthenium
Conium maculatum
Conyza canadensis
Crataegus laevigata
Ephedra sinica
Equisetum arvense
Geum urbanum
Hieracium pilosella
Hippophae rhamnoides
Juniperus communis
Linaria vulgaris
Melilotus officinalis
Menyanthes trifoliata
Phyllanthus tenellus
Primula elatior
Primula veris
Pyrola rotundifolia
Reseda lutea
Rosa canina
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubus fruticosus
Rubus idaeus
Sanguisorba officinalis
Scrophularia alata
Scrophularia nodosa
Silybum marianum
Thymus pulegioides
Thymus serpyllum
Thymus vulgaris
Vaccinium myrtillus
Verbascum densiflorum
Viburnum prunifolium
Viola tricolor
Vitex agnus castus

flavanone

Butin

Vernonia anthelmintica
Dalbergia odorifera

Eriodictyol

Millettia duchesnei
Eupatorium arnottianum
lemons
Rosa canina
Artemisia dracunculus
Citrus x paradisi
Eriodictyon californicum
Eucalyptus globulus
Ocimum basilicum
Origanum vulgare
Petroselinum crispum
Rosmarinus officinalis
Rubus phoenicolasius
Silybum marianum
Thymus vulgaris

Hesperetin

Artemisia dracunculus
Citrus
Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia
Citrus x paradisi
Eriodictyon californicum
Mentha aquatica
Mentha piperita

Hesperidin

Agathosma betulina
Capsicum annuum
Capsicum frutescens
Citrus
Citrus aurantiifolia
Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia
Citrus limon
citrus medica
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Citrus x aurantium
Citrus x paradisi
Daphne mezereum
Hyssopus officinalis
Imperatoria ostruthium
Mentha
Mentha arvensis
Mentha arvensis piperascens
Mentha longifolia
Mentha piperita
Mentha pulegium
Mentha spicata
Rosmarinus officinalis
Ruta graveolens
Scrophularia nodosa
Tilia
Tilia cordata
Tilia platyphylla
Verbascum densiflorum
Verbascum phlomoides
Verbascum thapsus

Homoeriodictyol

Eriodictyon californicum
Coriandrum sativum

Isosakuranetin

Citrus sinensis (blood orange)
fruit of Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)
Monarda didyma (scarlet beebalm)

Naringenin

Grapefruit
Oranges
Tomato (skin)
Acacia farnesiana
Anacardium occidentale
Artemisia dracunculus
Camellia sinensis
Centaurea calcitrapa
Cerasus vulgaris
Citrus limon
Citrus sinensis
Citrus x aurantium
Citrus x paradisi
Equisetum arvense
Eucalyptus globulus
Glycine max
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Gnaphalium arenarium
Lycopersicon esculentum
Maclura aurantiaca
Monarda didyma
Origanum vulgare
Petroselinum crispum
Prunus persica
Silybum marianum
Thymus vulgaris
Vigna radiata

Naringin

It is a major flavonoid in grapefruit and gives the grapefruit juice its bitter taste.
Adiantum capillus veneris
Citrus
Citrus aurantium ssp bergamia
Citrus limon
Citrus reticulata
Citrus sinensis
Citrus x aurantium
Citrus x paradisi
Origanum vulgare
Salix purpurea

Pinocembrin

damiana [Turnera diffusa]
honey
propolis
Artemisia dracunculus
Dodonaea viscosa
Eriodictyon californicum
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Pinus montana
Pinus silvestris
Pinus strobus
Populus balsamifera

Poncirin

Poncirus trifoliata
Calamintha nepeta
Citrus
Citrus limon
Citrus x paradisi

Sakuranetin

Polymnia fruticosa and rice, where it acts as a phytoalexin against spore germination of Pyricularia oryzae
Betula
Daucus carota
Eriodictyon californicum
Eucalyptus citriodora
Eucalyptus globulus
Juglans nigra
Ribes nigrum

Sakuranin

Sterubin

Eriodictyon californicum

flavanol

Catechins

Catechin (C)

catechin
Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu)
Camellia sinensis
Theobroma cacao
Acacia catechu
Acacia nilotica
Acacia senegal
Agrimonia eupatoria
Alpinia zerumbet
Anthyllis vulneraria
Betula pendula
Bistorta major
Camellia sinensis
Catha edulis
Cinnamomum verum
Cola nitida
Crataegus laevigata
Crataegus monogyna
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Ephedra
Ephedra gerardiana
Ephedra sinica
Frangula alnus
Garcinia mangostana
Ginkgo
Glycine max
Hordeum vulgare
Humulus lupulus
Hypericum perforatum
Illicium verum
Laurus nobilis
Leonurus cardiaca
Melia azedarach
Melissa officinalis
Myristica fragrans
Olea europaea
Paullinia cupana
Pimenta dioica
Pinus pinaster
Polygonum aequale
Polypodium vulgare
Prunus armeniaca
Pyrus communis
Quercus alba
Quercus robur
Quercus rubra
Rheum officinale
Rheum palmatum
Rheum rhaponticum
Rheum tanguticum
Ribes nigrum
Rosa
Rosa canina
Rosa eglanteria
Salix alba
Salix purpurea
Salvia officinalis
Santolina chamaecyparissus
Theobroma cacao
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vanilla planifolia
Vitis vinifera
(+)-Catechin
 Abutilon theophrasti
Acacia dealbata
Acacia nilotica
Aesculus hippocastanum
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Aspalathus linearis
Camellia sinensis
Ceratonia siliqua
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cnicus benedictus
Crataegus laevigata
Crataegus monogyna
Eucalyptus globulus
Fagopyrum esculentum
Fallopia japonica
Ginkgo
Gleditsia triacanthos
Glycine max
Hordeum vulgare
Humulus lupulus
Hypericum perforatum
Juniperus communis
Laurus nobilis
Malus domestica
Pinus silvestris
Rheum officinale
Rheum palmatum
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhododendron ponticum
Ribes nigrum
Ribes uva-crispa
Rosa canina
Rubus idaeus
Rumex crispus
Salix alba
Sanguisorba officinalis
Terminalia catappa
Thuja occidentalis
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis idaea
Vitis vinifera

Gallocatechin (GC)

This compound possesses two epimers. The most common, (+)-gallocatechin (GC), CAS number 970-73-0, is found notably in
green tea.
Other sources of (+)- gallocatechin are .)
bananas
persimmon
pomegranate
Acacia dealbata
Camellia sinensis
gossypium
Humulus lupulus
Quercus alba
Quercus robur
Ribes nigrum
Rosa canina
Theobroma cacao
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis idaea
Vitis vinifera

Catechin 3-gallate (Cg)

Gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCg)

Epicatechins

Epicatechin (EC)

Epicatechin
 Aesculus hippocastanum
Alpinia zerumbet
Camellia sinensis
Cerasus vulgaris
Cola nitida
Crataegus laevigata
Elaeagnus angustifolia
Humulus lupulus
Hymenaea courbaril
Krameria lappacea
Malus domestica
Pinus pinaster
Pyrus communis
Rosa canina
Sorbus aucuparia
Theobroma cacao
Uncaria guianensis
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Vaccinium myrtillus
Viburnum opulus
Vicia faba
Vitis vinifera
(+)-Epicatechin
Fagopyrum esculentum
Hypericum perforatum
Malus domestica
(-)-Epicatechin
 Abutilon theophrasti
Aesculus hippocastanum
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Camellia sinensis
Ceratonia siliqua
Cinchona
Cinchona pubescens
Cinnamomum aromaticum
Cinnamomum verum
Crataegus laevigata
Crataegus monogyna
Ephedra sinica
Fagopyrum esculentum
Ginkgo
Humulus lupulus
Hypericum perforatum
Juniperus communis
Laurus nobilis
Malus domestica
Myristica fragrans
Pinus silvestris
Rheum officinale
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rhododendron ponticum
Rubus idaeus
Rumex crispus
Tamarindus indica
Terminalia catappa
Theobroma cacao
Uncaria guianensis
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vaccinium vitis idaea
Vitis vinifera
L-Epicatechin
Acacia catechu
Anacardium occidentale
Cola acuminata
Ginkgo
Hamamelis virginiana
Malus domestica
Pterocarpus marsupium
Theobroma cacao

Epigallocatechin (EGC)

Epigallocatechin
Camellia sinensis
Ribes nigrum
Theobroma cacao
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vicia faba
L-Epigallocatechin
Ginkgo
Hamamelis virginiana

Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECg)

green tea.
buckwheat
grape
Camellia sinensis
Fagopyrum esculentum
Rheum rhabarbarum

Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCg)

anthocyanidin

Aurantinidin

Impatients aurantiaca

Cyanidin

It is a pigment found in many redberries including but not limited to grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry and raspberry. It can also be found in other fruits such as apples and plums. It is also found in red cabbage and red onion.
Abutilon theophrasti
Achillea millefolium
Actinidia chinensis
Aesculus hippocastanum
Ajuga reptans
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Asimina triloba
Averrhoa carambola
Bixa orellana
Borago officinalis
Cerasus vulgaris
Cinnamomum camphora
Coffea arabica
Cola acuminata
Crocus sativus
Dianthus caryophyllus
Dodonaea viscosa
Elettaria cardamomum
Eriobotrya japonica
Fagopyrum esculentum
gossypium
Humulus lupulus
Hypericum perforatum
Juglans regia
Laurus nobilis
Linum usitatissimum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Magnolia denudata
Magnolia officinalis
Malus domestica
Morus alba
Musa x paradisiaca
Myristica fragrans
Pisum sativum
Polygonum multiflorum
Prunella vulgaris
Prunus amygdalus
Prunus armeniaca
Prunus domestica
Prunus laurocerasus
Prunus serotina
Prunus spinosa
Ribes nigrum
Rumex crispus
Salix alba
Solanum melongena
Sorbus aucuparia
Theobroma cacao
Trifolium pratense
Vaccinium corymbosum
vaccinium myrtillus
Vitis vinifera
Zea mays

Delphinidin

Delphinidin gives blue hues to flowers like violas and delphiniums. It also gives the blue-red color of the grape that produces Cabernet Sauvignon, and can be found in cranberries and Concord grapes as well as pomegranates.
Abrus abrus
Abutilon theophrasti
Actinidia chinensis
Ajuga reptans
Ammi visnaga
Arctostaphylos uva ursi
Borago officinalis
Crocus sativus
Diospyros virginiana
gossypium
Hibiscus sabdariffa
Humulus lupulus
Linum usitatissimum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Musa x paradisiaca
Myristica fragrans
Oenothera biennis
Perilla frutescens
Pisum sativum
Polygonum aequale
Prunella vulgaris
Ribes nigrum
Salix alba
Solanum melongena
Trifolium pratense
Vaccinium corymbosum
vaccinium myrtillus
Vitis vinifera
Zingiber officinale

Europinidin

It can be found in species of Plumbago and Ceratostigma

Luteolinidin

Sorghum bicolor
Zea Mays

Pelargonidin

It produces a characteristic orange color, and can be found in red geraniums, and ripe raspberries and strawberries, as well as blueberries, blackberries, plums and cranberries and pomegranates. It is present in large amounts in red kidney beans.
Acacia dealbata
Musa x paradisiaca
Pisum sativum
Tropaeolum majus
Vitis vinifera
Zea Mays

Malvidin

It is primarily responsible for the color of red wine, Vitis vinifera being one of its sources. It is also one of the anthocyanidins responsible for the blue pigment found in the Primula plants of the polyanthus group.
catharanthus roseus
crocus sativus
Malva moschata
Malva silvestris
Musa x paradisiaca
Punica granatum
Trifolium pratense
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vitis
Vitis vinifera

Peonidin

Peonidin gives purplish-red hues to flowers such as the peony, from which it takes its name, and roses. It is also present in some blue flowers, such as the morning glory.
Ipomoea Batatas
Musa x paradisiaca
Origanum vulgare
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vitis vinifera

Petunidin

It is a dark-red or purple water-soluble pigment found in many redberries including chokeberries (Aronia sp), Saskatoon berries (Amelanchier alnifolia) or different species of grape (for instance Vitis vinifera, or muscadine, Vitis rotundifolia), and also part of the pigments responsible for the petal colors in many flowers. The name of the molecule itself is derived from the word Petunia.
catharanthus roseus
Crocus sativus
Musa x paradisiaca
Pisum sativum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium myrtillus
Vitis vinifera

Rosinidin

It is a pigment found in the flowers of Catharanthus roseus and, in lower concentration, in Primula rosea


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